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taixyz1992



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Join date : 2010-10-10

PostSubject: Analytical chemistry   Mon Nov 08, 2010 10:34 pm

Analytical chemistry is the study of the separation, identification, and quantification of the chemical components of natural and artificial materials.[1] Qualitative analysis gives an indication of the identity of the chemical species in the sample and quantitative analysis determines the amount of one or more of these components. The separation of components is often performed prior to analysis.
Analytical methods can be separated into classical and instrumental.[2] Classical methods (also known as wet chemistry methods) use separations such as precipitation, extraction, and distillation and qualitative analysis by color, odor, or melting point. Quantitative analysis is achieved by measurement of weight or volume. Instrumental methods use an apparatus to measure physical quantities of the analyte such as light absorption, fluorescence, or conductivity. The separation of materials is accomplished using chromatography or electrophoresis methods.
Analytical chemistry has been important since the early days of chemistry, providing methods for determining which elements and chemicals are present in the world around us. During this period significant analytical contributions to chemistry include the development of systematic elemental analysis by Justus von Liebig and systematized organic analysis based on the specific reactions of functional groups.

The first instrumental analysis was flame emissive spectrometry developed by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff who discovered rubidium (Rb) and caesium (Cs) in 1860.[3]

Most of the major developments in analytical chemistry take place after 1900. During this period instrumental analysis becomes progressively dominant in the field. In particular many of the basic spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques were discovered in the early 20th century and refined in the late 20th century.[4]

The separation sciences follow a similar time line of development and also become increasingly transformed into high performance instruments.[5] In the 1970s many of these techniques began to be used together to achieve a complete characterization of samples.


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